Concrete and Earthquake Engineering Research Group

Department of Civil & Structural Engineering

Dr Samar Raffoul

PhD Student


Department of Civil and Structural Engineering
Sir Frederick Mappin Building
Mappin Street,
S1 3JD


Samar acquired her BSc.(Hons) in civil engineering from the University of Balamand (Lebanon) after  being granted the University Merit Scholarship. In 2012, she was awarded a MSc. in structural engineering at the University of Manchester (UK). Following a year of work in the construction industry, Samar joined the University of Sheffield Concrete and Earthquake Engineering Research Group for her PhD studies. 

Recent activities and achievements

Project title: Development of Confined Rubberised Concrete for High Ductility Structural Applications

Objectives: Rubber from waste tyres will be utilised to replace portions of the conventional concrete mineral aggregates. The main aim of this research is to characterise and optimise the performance of rubberised concrete in compression and generate predictive models that could be used for the development of new highly deformable structural elements. This research is part of Anagennisi.

Tasks and methodology: Despite the prospective benefits of rubberised concrete, rubber in concrete results in undesirable losses in workability, stiffness and strength, which has limited its use to non-structural or low-grade applications.  The literature also lacks consensus. Predictive models regarding rubberised concrete behaviour are very scattered.  To address these challenges, a combination of experimental and theoretical work will be adopted to examine the key parameters influencing rubberised concrete workability and stress-strain behaviour when subject to compression. FRP confinement will be used to enhance the concrete strength and stiffness. These results, alongside with data from the literature, are instrumental to the development of accurate predictive models describing CRC behaviour.

Expected results: 

  • An experimental database on the parameters influencing rubberised concrete performance.
  • Constitutive models for the behaviour of confined and unconfined rubberised concrete. 
  • Development of a high-deformability, high ductility concrete with reduced environmental impact for many prospective structural applications.

Supervisor: Prof. Kypros Pilakoutas

Research project(s)


Innovative Use of all Tyre Components in Concrete
Anagennisi: Innovative Use of all Tyre Components in Concrete An estimated one billion tyres are discarded each year. Post-Consumer tyre arisings for EU countries (2010) are 3.4M tonnes per year. At the moment nearly 50% of all recycled tyres/components still end up as fuel, in low grade applications or in...


(2017). Behaviour of unconfined and FRP-confined rubberised concrete in axial compression. Construction and Building Materials, 147 (1), pp. 388-397. (Full Text).
(2016). Optimisation of rubberised concrete with high rubber content: An experimental investigation. Construction and Building Materials, pp. 391-404. (Full Text)., Abstract: This article investigates experimentally the behaviour of rubberised concrete (RuC) with high rubber content so as to fully utilise the mechanical properties of vulcanised rubber. The fresh properties and short-term uniaxial compressive strength of 40 rubberised concrete mixes were assessed. The...
(2014). Technical report on fresh and hardened properties of modified rubberised concrete (short term), (Anagennisi Deliverable Report 2.1), Abstract: This report addresses Task 2.1 of WP2 of the Anagennisi project and aims to examine the fresh and short?term hardened properties of confined rubberised concrete. This report complements deliverable “D1.1 Pilot study on rubberised concrete and concepts for developing highly deformable elements” that...